[23] The IJA also began developing fire balloons capable of carrying incendiary and anti-personnel bombs from Japan to the continental United States.  • Nazi plunder [136] Cloudy weather prevented any further large-scale precision attacks until 24 July, when 625 B-29s were dispatched against seven targets near Nagoya and Osaka. [157] Overall, mines dropped by Superfortresses off the home islands sank 293 ships, which represented 9.3 percent of all Japanese merchant shipping destroyed during the Pacific War and 60 percent of losses between April and August 1945. Statistics complied by the USSBS show a correlation between the number of B-29 sorties directed at different industries and the amount by which their production declined, but air attacks were not the only reason for these differences. [173] This operation has been described as the single most effective strategic air attack of the Pacific War. World Heritage Encyclopedia is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.  • Operation Paperclip On 16 July, XXI Bomber Command was re-designated the Twentieth Air Force and LeMay appointed its commander. [290] The financial cost of the campaign to the United States was $4 billion; this expenditure was much lower than the $30 billion spent on bomber operations in Europe, and a small proportion of the $330 billion the US Government spent on the war. The planners estimated that incendiary bomb attacks on Japan's six largest cities could cause physical damage to almost 40 percent of industrial facilities and result in the loss of 7.6 million man-months of labor.  • Crete They had little success in permanently clearing minefields or downing the B-29s, however. No Japanese fighters were encountered in the air, however, as they were being kept in reserve for a planned large-scale suicide attack on the Allied fleet. The next day, President Truman ordered a halt to the bombing due to the possibility that it would be interpreted as a sign that the peace negotiations had failed. The Japanese defenses were relatively successful on this occasion, and 26 Superfortresses were shot down and another 100 damaged. [107][108], The Japanese government was concerned about the results of the March firebombing attacks as the raids had demonstrated that the Japanese military was unable to protect the nation's airspace. [279] It is not possible to determine the exact damage bombing caused to Japan's economy, however, as the Allied naval blockade also contributed to general breakdown which occurred from late 1944. This task force was the US Navy's main striking force in the Pacific, and comprised 11 fleet carriers, five light aircraft carriers and a powerful force of escorts. [99], The USAAF assessed that the firebombing campaign had been highly successful, and noted that American losses during these attacks were much lower than those incurred during day precision raids. [268] Overall, most of the new buildings constructed were of poor quality, and it was not until well after the war that major urban improvement projects were undertaken. Of this total, 147,000 tons of bombs were dropped by the B-29 bomber force. [300] Edwin P. Hoyt wrote in 1987 that Japanese people commonly regard the Allied bombing of civilians as the worst atrocity of the war. In return, the P-51 pilots claimed 26 "kills" and 23 "probables" for the loss of three fighters. The final raids against Japan, and the battleship bombardments, are difficult to evaluate for their usefullness. [226], Of the approximately 545 Allied airmen who were captured in the Japanese home islands (excluding the Kuril and Bonin Islands), 132 were executed and 29 were killed by civilians. [192] Poor coordination between the IJAAF and IJN also continued to hamper Japan's defensive efforts throughout this period. These raids targeted United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) bases and sought to disrupt the bombing of Japan by B-29 Superfortress heavy bombers operating from the islands. [139], In mid-June Arnold visited LeMay's headquarters at Saipan. In addition to the loss of life, the raids caused extensive damage to Japan's cities and contributed to a large decline in industrial production. [47] The government also encouraged old people, children and women in cities that were believed likely to be attacked to move to the countryside from December 1943, and a program of evacuating entire classes of schoolchildren was implemented. [64] The first attack, codenamed Operation San Antonio I, was made against the Musashino aircraft plant in the outskirts of Tokyo on 24 November 1944. During the attacks on 18 and 19 March, the American naval aviators claimed to have destroyed 223 Japanese aircraft in the air and 250 on the ground, while the Japanese placed their losses as 161 of the 191 aircraft they committed in the air and an unspecified number on the ground. The government chose not to develop strong defenses to meet the threat of air attack as the country's industrial resources were unable to maintain offensive air forces in China and the Pacific as well as a defensive force in the home islands. [292], A woman and her child outside their bombed home in Ebisu, Tokyo following the war, The moral concerns over the attacks have been focused on the large number of civilian casualties and property damage they caused. ""To Dispose of the Prisoners" : The Japanese Executions of American Aircrew at Fukuoka, Japan, during 1945". However, historian Richard B. Frank argues that this difference was attributable to the evolution in views towards bombing over the course of the war, the limited intelligence on the structure of the Japanese economy available to the Allies and the much greater vulnerability of Japanese cities to incendiary bombs. However, there has been a long-running debate over the morality of the attacks on Japanese cities, and the use of atomic weapons is particularly controversial. On the first day of the month 521 B-29s escorted by 148 P-51s were dispatched in a daylight raid against Osaka. On 8 September 1944, the Cabinet of Japan directed that indiscriminate bombing constituted a war crime[206] despite the fact there was no international treaty or instrument protecting a civilian population specifically from attack by aircraft at the time. "The B-29 Air Campaign Against Japan". Digital object identifier: Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Military history of Japan during World War II, United States Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, "Executive Order 9082 Reorganizing the Army and the War Department", http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=16227#axzz1hoe6Kzxf, "America Hits Back: The Doolittle Tokyo Raiders", http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=15351, http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/57jpcl.htm, http://books.google.com/books?id=tYME6Z35nyAC&pg=PA1107&dq=Spies+can+be+punished,+not+legitimate+combatants+WWII&hl=en&sa=X&ei=lKvVUaiOLqr-igLKr4HAAw&ved=0CEQQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Spies%20can%20be%20punished%2C%20not%20legitimate%20combatants%20WWII&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=6nmXtBQxfSwC&pg=PA186&dq=Spies+can+be+punished+legitimate+combatants+WWII+enemy+uniform&hl=en&sa=X&ei=uK3VUZLBH8-UigKqzgE&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Spies%20can%20be%20punished%20legitimate%20combatants%20WWII%20enemy%20uniform&f=false, "Formal Surrender of Japan, 2 September 1945 – Aircraft Flyover as the Ceremonies Conclude", http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-pac/japansur/js-8i.htm, "Damages suit over 1945 air raids on Osaka dismissed", http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20111209a6.html, http://books.google.com/books?id=PgwAAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA2#v=onepage&q&f=false, http://www.afhra.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-090529-036.pdf, http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/AAF/IV/index.html, http://books.google.com.au/books?id=keUMn-pi5vkC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false, http://www.airforce-magazine.com/MagazineArchive/Documents/2009/March%202009/0309matterhorn.pdf, http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/AAF/V/index.html, http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/AAF/VII/index.html, http://web.archive.org/web/20080531082803/http://www.afa.org/magazine/1990/1090bat.html, "Hitting Home: The Air Offensive Against Japan", http://www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-100927-081.pdf, http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/MacArthur%20Reports/MacArthur%20V1%20Sup/Index.htm, http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(05)67041-9/fulltext, http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USA/USA-CBI-Mission/index.html, http://books.google.com.au/books?id=4p1pDSXzZZUC&dq=Raid+on+Yawata, http://www.archive.org/stream/effectsofbombing00unit, http://www.archive.org/details/effectsofstrateg00unit, http://www.airforce-magazine.com/MagazineArchive/Documents/2004/April%202004/0404japan.pdf, Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, German prisoners of war in the United States, Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Japanese prisoners of war in World War II, Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Air_raids_on_Japan?oldid=5250061, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, Estimates vary between 241,000 and 900,000 killed, 300,000 civilians killed and 500,000 wounded. Following the landing on 1 April, TF 58 provided air defense for the naval force off Okinawa and regularly conducted patrols over Kyushu. It was the deadliest conventional air raid ever, worse than Nagasaki and on par with Hiroshima. [182] The first of these operations took place on 16 April, when 57 P-51s strafed Kanoya Air Field in Kyushu. In the first of these raids 520 B-29s destroyed 5.3 square miles (14 km2) of southern Tokyo with 17 aircraft lost and 69 damaged. He wasn't certain how anyone ... ... and life went on: he internally recited, swallowed his whispered whit of air, and regurgitated the aphorism. Overall, the two air forces flew 6,435 sorties against targets in Kyushu during July and August for the loss of 43 aircraft to Japanese anti-aircraft guns and fighters.  • Lend-Lease Several Japanese aircraft were shot down while attempting to attack TF 38 later that day, however.  • Italy (Spring 1945) Nagoya was attacked again on the night of 18/19 March, and the B-29s destroyed 2.95 square miles (7.6 km2) of buildings. [190], USAAF P-51 Mustang fighters of the VII Fighter Command stationed at Iwo Jima from March 1945 were initially used mainly to escort B-29s. Two nights later, Himeji, Kōchi, Takamatsu and Tokushima were attacked.  • Ardennes [143], Five major precision bombing attacks were conducted as part of the Empire Plan. During the first years of the Pacific War, these attacks were limited to the Doolittle Raid in April 1942 and small-scale raids on military positions in the Kuril Islands from mid-1943. [140], Part of Shizuoka after it was firebombed on 19 June 1945, The firebombing campaign against small cities continued through June and July. As the campaign continued and the most important cities were destroyed, the bombers were sent against smaller and less significant cities. The last attack planned by Hansell was more successful, however: a force of 77 B-29s crippled a Kawasaki Aircraft Industries factory near Akashi on 19 January.  • Eastern Romania [111][115] On 24 April the Tachikawa aircraft engine factory at Yamato near Tokyo was destroyed by 131 B-29s. Osaka was bombed for the fourth time in the month on 15 June when 444 B-29s destroyed 1.9 square miles (4.9 km2) of the city and another 0.59 square miles (1.5 km2) of nearby Amagasaki; 300,000 houses were destroyed in Osaka. The men into custody hour-long raids such as London knows, but rarely voiced their views publicly Encyclopedia a! Yamato and aircraft factories in the home islands damaged the city the flew! 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